Galeev Mosque (The Fifth Mosque) is named after the Galeev family. Galimdzhan Galeev served as this mosque’s imam-khatib from 1882 to 1917 and founded the Mukhammadiya madrassa, which became a center of religious and secular education for Tatars, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, and other Muslims.
Construction began on the mosque in 1798 thanks to the financial support of Musa Mamyashev. When the mosque was completed in 1801, parishioners initially called it Musa bai mosque. For most of the 19th century, however, the mosque was not associated with its financial patron, but rather with the dynasty of Sagitov clergymen. Patriarch Sagit bin Akhmed opened a parochial madrassa here in 1810, and his sons later served in the mosque as well.
In 1882, the merchant Ibragim Urazaev helped build a new wing on the south side of the mosque. The same year, imam-khatib Mukhametiusuf Sagitov recruited a new assistant, Galimdzhan Galeev (Barudi). Galeev’s progressive views did not suit the conservative Sagitov. Ultimately, though, the struggle was not between the individual clergymen, but rather entire schools of thought. Conservative kadmists, who opposed secular education, rejected the reforms proposed by progressive dzhadidists, who advocated for the secularization of knowledge. Barudi eventually won this power struggle with Sagitov and became a new imam.
Barudi’s father, industrialist Mukhametzhan Galeev, long played an important role in the development of the mosque. In 1897, he and Ismagil Imankulov, another merchant, expanded the north and south sides of the mosque and added a pitched roof, a new three-tiered minaret, and an octagonal cupola.
The Galeev father and son duo also founded Mukhammadiya madrassa. Thus, Galeev Mosque became the center of Tatar culture and education. Disciplines such as languages, mathematics, geometry, physics, geography, psychology, pedagogy, and the history of Russia and Turkic peoples were taught here at European levels. Charismatic teachers such as Abubekir Teregulov, Said-Girei Alkin, and Yusuf Akchura worked at the madrassa. Teachers lectured from their chairs. Pupils studied at their desks using maps and visual aids and lived in dormitories. Such concepts were relatively new even in Russia’s imperial universities.
Many prominent figures studied here, including Fatikh Amirkhan, Mashit Gafuri, Fatkhi Burnash, Karim Tinchurin, Naki Isanbet, revolutionaries Khusain Iamashev and Kamil Yakub, artist Baki Urmanche, and many others. Over 500 students were studying here at the beginning of the 20th century.
In 1908, Barudi was exiled to Vologda province for two years for organizing unsanctioned teachers courses, but his younger brother Abdrakhman Galeev quickly took over the leadership of the mosque.
The mosque was finally closed in 1931 and underwent a major renovation that removed the minarets and turrets. A hotel subsequently opened here and operated for a long time.
In 1998, Galeev Mosque became home to Russian Islamic University (now Islamic Institute), Russia’s first Islamic higher vocational school, which trains Muslim theologians, journalists, linguists, economists, and layers. In 1993, Mukhammadiya madrassa reopened, although in a new building, on Gabdulla Tukai Street, No. 34.